图怪兽_ea8de3ea1be528a990c6843385fb0462_45521

社会工作介入社区社会组织 功能转型的实务探索

孙玉坤 代彩 2019-10-18 09:52   郑州市馨家苑社区服务中心 投搞 打印 收藏

0

作为党群服务中心的重要组成部分,社区社会组织(社团)在激发基层社会活力、增强社区凝聚力、促进社区参与、参与社区治理和社区服务等方面发挥着越来越重要的作用。郑州市管城区Y社区目前已经有14个社团组织,但是多以娱乐型为主,在参与社区事务及志愿服务方面的功能明显缺乏。为了解决以上问题,项目组社工采取了社团负责人意识转变、提升自我管理功能、志愿服务平台打造、建立督导和激励机制等一系列措施,促使其社团及其成员逐步形成志愿服务意识,提升社团自身素质和能力,加强其自我管理自我服务功能,促进文娱型社团向功能型转变,促进其

作为党群服务中心的重要组成部分,社区社会组织(社团)在激发基层社会活力、增强社区凝聚力、促进社区参与、参与社区治理和社区服务等方面发挥着越来越重要的作用。郑州市管城区Y社区目前已经有14个社团组织,但是多以娱乐型为主,在参与社区事务及志愿服务方面的功能明显缺乏。为了解决以上问题,项目组社工采取了社团负责人意识转变、提升自我管理功能、志愿服务平台打造、建立督导和激励机制等一系列措施,促使其社团及其成员逐步形成志愿服务意识,提升社团自身素质和能力,加强其自我管理自我服务功能,促进文娱型社团向功能型转变,促进其更多参与社区事务,发挥主人翁作用,承担一定的社区服务责任,减轻社工工作负担,协助社区全面提升整体服务质量和水平。

一、社区社会组织功能转型的背景及Y社区社会组织发展的现状

党的十九大报告指出,加强社区治理体系建设,推动社会治理重心向基层下移,发挥社会组织作用。今年6月公布的《中共中央国务院关于加强和完善城乡社区治理的意见》强调,统筹发挥社会力量协同作用,大力发展社区社会组织和其他社会组织。作为社会组织的重要组成部分,社区社会组织在激发基层社会活力、增强社区凝聚力、促进社区参与、参与社区治理和社区服务等方面发挥着越来越重要的作用。

目前,Y社区党群服务中心已有14个社团(社区社会组织),但是多数社团的性质仍以娱乐性为主,其参与志愿服务及社区其他公共事务的意识明显不足,在参与社区建设和社区服务方面的功能较为薄弱,其促进社区服务质量和水平方面的作用没有得以发挥。Y社区党群服务中心项目已经运营近3年,随着社会工作深化、优质、高效的服务发展要求,以及居民需求的不断变化,常规的基础服务已经无法更好地满足社区居民的发展性需求。而目前社工仍在承担基础服务方面花费较多的时间和精力,这就造成了社工在专业服务领域投入的精力不足,最终将影响社区服务功能的发挥和社会工作服务品质的提升。

经过分析总结,笔者认为Y社区社会组织发展中主要存在以下问题:第一,14个社团(社区社会组织),其性质多以娱乐性为主,功能型社团角色发挥不足,其需要在社工的协助下,去更好的提升自身能力,在社区服务中发挥更大的作用和价值。第二,目前,社工在社区基础服务方面仍花费较大时间和精力,很多事情都是亲力亲为,一方面导致在专业研究和实务探索方面的投入较少,影响社区服务水平和质量的提升,同时也不利于“助人自助”价值理念的实现。第三,社区公共服务水平的提升,是众多参与主体努力的结果,目前,Y社区承担社区服务功能仍以社区工作人员及社工为主,社区社会组织、企事业单位及居民参与社区服务和社区管理的意识较弱,社会责任发挥不足,不利于社区服务水平的全面提升,也不利于实现社区自治目标的实现。   

二、社会工作介入社区社会组织功能转型的理论依

据——增能理论

增能是个人在与他人用环境的积极互动过程中,获得更大的对生活空间的掌控能力和自信心,以及促进环境资源和机会的运用,以进一步帮助个人获得更多能力的过程。该理论强调每个人都不缺少能力,个人的能力是可以通过社会互动不断增加的。服务对象是有能力、有价值的,服务对象的能力不是助人者给予的。在社区社会组织功能转型项目中,社工通过采取一些列专业服务,协助社团组织转变自我意识,挖掘其潜能,促进其自我成长,发挥其优势和自身价值,促使其由娱乐型社团向功能型社团转变,更好地发挥其自我服务与服务社区、奉献社会的功能。

三、社会工作介入社区社会组织功能转型的方法和策略

为了促使社区社会组织顺利实现功能转型,更好地发挥服务自我、服务居民、服务社区的功能,笔者认为,可以从意识转变、“领袖成长营”计划、提升凝聚力、志愿者“微课堂”+ 陪伴式督导、社区公共服务的认领与执行、社团组织的赋权与增能、建立激励机制等方面入手,引导社团提升自我管理、自我服务水平,同时也注重增强社团的志愿服务意识,参与到社区管理和社区服务中,促进社区服务参与主体的多元化,进一步提升社区服务和社区治理水平。

1、党建引领,意识转变

要实现社区社会组织的成功转型,思想和意识的转变是首要前提,在此过程中,要始终将党建引领的思想贯穿其中,给予社团组织以良性引导,提升其政治觉悟,增强其服务群众、共建共享的责任和意识。意识转变并不是一蹴而就的,可以从以下几个方面进行入手:在召开社团会议和培训时,注重进行志愿服务理念和党建思想的宣传;宣传社团参与社区服务的意义和价值,提高其社区主人翁意识,促使社团成员真正认识到参与社区事务是一项利民、利己、有价值、有意义的事情,提高其参与的积极性;将辖区困难群体的困难和需求直观形象地向社团进行展现(如PPT展示、带他们进行困难群体入户体验等),激发其扶危助困的仁爱之心。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

2、“领袖成长营”计划

社团领袖是团队的领头羊和核心,具有榜样作用,威信力,在社团转型过程中,其能力和技能的提升也会助力于整个团队的发展和成长。本项目计划每月定期对社团管理者及骨干成员开展管理能力、组织能力、统筹能力、沟通能力等技能成长培训,全面提升社团领袖人物的领导统筹能力,从而增强社团的自我管理和自我服务功能。同时鼓励社团领袖首先加入到社区服务和建设的队伍行列之中,促使他们逐步成为参与公益服务的引领者和实践者以及志愿服务理念的传递者,通过他们的实际行动及自身的威信力和号召力,去影响和感染其他社团成员,扩大Y社区乃至航海东路街道办事处志愿服务力量。

3、做好内部建设,提升凝聚力

社团的凝聚力不仅是维持团队存在的必要条件,而且对团队潜能的发挥有很重要的作用。因此,做好团队内部建设,促使社团和谐稳定发展,对于社团顺利转型必不可少。在社团内部建设方面,项目计划从以下几个方面入手:第一,在领导和沟通方式上,社工要积极引导,促使各社团形成稳定民主型领导方式,在团队决策上应共商公共议,避免独断专行,营造良好的沟通氛围就是要让各成员敢于表达、愿意表达、能够表达自己的思想,来集思广益,力求最大限度反映民意,促使团队之间相互信任、团结一致,使团队凝聚力更强;第二,建立有效的社团发展和管理制度。目前,Y社区党群服务中心已经制定了社团管理制度,但是,具体的执行过程中,往往会存在重重困难和阻力,且社团进行转型的过程中,相关的管理制度(如奖惩制度、激励制度等)都需要根据项目具体情况进行重新修订,因此,项目组会进一步完善并严格执行社团管理制度,以实现对社团的有效管理,同时帮助社团更好地实现自我管理和自我成长。第三,进行团建活动,提升团队凝聚力和向心力。在团队建设中,可以设计针对性强的互动方式(如唱歌、聚餐、出游等),让团队成员在此过程中相互配合、团结一致,加深彼此感情,形成团队协助意识,促使他们在行为、情绪和心理上与其他成员融为一体,做到相互信任、亲密合作,增加组员对团队、对社区大集体的归属感,共同为团队的成长发展做出努力。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

4、志愿者“微课堂”+ 陪伴式督导

为了进一步提升社区志愿服务水平和质量,该项目计划

每月对所有参与志愿服务的社团成员进行志愿者理念和服务技巧培训,包括志愿服务精神、理念、志愿服务类别、服务方法与技巧、沟通技巧、志愿服务注意事项等,以进一步坚定参训人员志愿服务理念和信心,提升其志愿服务素养和能力。此外,在培训过程中,针对社团成员在志愿服务过程中遇到的问题和困境,能进行现场解决的社工要及时给予督导,对于一些特殊问题,社工可以与志愿服务人员共同参与其中,通过以身示范或者适时引导和建议等,协助他们解决遇到的困境,以促使他们顺利完成志愿服务,更好地服务于辖区居民,提升社区服务水平和质量。

5、社区公共服务的认领与执行

社工将社区志愿服务和其它公益服务进行分类(可大致分为公益慈善服务倡导、环境整治、困难群体帮扶、社区治安维护、场馆日常管理与维护等),详细了解各社团参与社区服务的意愿,社工以此为基础,组织各社团对社区公益服务进行分配和认领,原则上鼓励每个社团至少认领1类志愿服务项目,在此过程中,社工要进行仔细观察、记录并对每个社团的表现进行评估,从中选出表现积极、对于社区事务热情度较高的3-5个社团,作为社团转型的重点培养对象,计划重点培养社团至少参与3次志愿服务活动并参与其它社区事务,社工也要对社团积极成员的参与情况及表现进行详细记录,为之后的表彰激励做准备。

6、社区社会组织的赋权与增能

要更好地实现社区社会组织的能力提升和促进其更好地

参与社区服务之中,对它们的赋权、增能必不可少。对于重点培养社团,对他们充分“放权”,鼓励他们参与到社区各类特色或公益活动的组织和策划之中,如中秋节活动、国庆节活动、春节活动及其他特色活动等,由重点培养的各社团团长带领团内成员共同组织、策划、实施,社工师只是起到引导和协助作用,这样,既有利于增强社团组织的主人翁意识,锻炼其领导能力和组织能力,进一步发挥其潜能,调动其参与事务的积极性和能动性,也能在一定程度上减轻社工的工作负担。

7、建立社区社会组织功能转型的激励机制

对于社区社会组织转型成功的认定与表彰:社团在转型过程中,对于社团转型的阶段和程度,需要社工制定明确的认定标准,如参与社区服务的频次、社团成员的对于公益服务的参与积极性、社团文艺功能和公益功能所占比重等,被认定为转型成功的社团,应进行有形式感的认定或表彰,给予其颁发“社区公益服务”功能型社团称号,同时在社区场馆宣传栏或公众号进行表彰和宣传,张贴海报,树立典型和榜样,并在十一或者元旦汇演志愿者表彰环节进行公开表彰。

社团参与社区志愿服务的其它激励措施:对志愿者的激励,除了常规的表彰、发放奖品、奖状、证书以外,我们可以将增加场馆活动机会作为一种奖励,也可以进行积分的实物兑换,例如日常的日常用品、电影票、话剧票、景区门票等;媒体曝光也是我们常用的激励手段,对于在社区服务中表现较好的社团组织或成员,将由社工撰写宣传文章向媒体进行推送,如有幸上主流媒体,必然对社团及其他成员是一种鼓励,更是一种激励他们投身公益服务的途径。除了以上几种激励方式,我们也以志愿者服务来提升参与社区事务话语权、参与社区中心工作这种方法来鼓励文娱组织开展志愿者服务。

四、社会工作介入社区社会组织功能转型的特色分析

1、注重社团领袖的威信力和影响力的发挥

在社团转型的过程中,社工并没有一开始就从整个社团入手,而是首先挖掘社区社会组织(社团)中的居民骨干,培养和提升其志愿服务意识,促进其潜能发挥,提升其综合素质和能力,促使他们逐步成为社区志愿服务的引领者和实践者,通过他们对志愿服务和社区参与理念的传递,影响和带动其他社团成员,最终促使整个社团逐步参与到社区服务和社区治理之中。

2、将社团职能转型与社区服务功能提升相结合

Y社区社会组织功能转型的举措不但促使社区社会组织由娱乐型向功能型社团转变,让社团更好地发挥自身价值,同时社团参与到社区志愿服务和社区治理之中,也促使志愿服务队伍由个人扩大至个人及团体,促使社区服务整体质量和水平的全面提升。这就有效的将社团职能转型与社区服务功能提升相结合,从而实现双重目的。

结语:

社区社会组织在社区服务和社区建设中发挥着不可忽视的作用,但是就全国各地而言,绝大多数社区的社会组织(社团)仍是以娱乐型为主,服务社区、助力社区治理创新等方面的功能发挥严重不足,Y社区社会组织功能转型的尝试和探索,将有效推动娱乐型社团向服务型社团转变,对于其它地区的社区社会组织职能转变将有很大的参考和借鉴价值,可以直接或者根据实际情况进行修改之后在其他地方进行推广和复制。


  • 微博推荐